Comme tout dirigeant mondial, Emmanuel Macron ne bénéficie pas d’un soutien à 100% de ses concitoyens. En effet, dans un sondage réalisé en octobre 2018 par Odoxa-Dentsu consulting, qui cherchait à évaluer la gestion et la popularité des six derniers présidents de l’Hexagone, Emmanuel Macron arrivait en cinquième position.
Les résultats de son administration n’ont pas forcément été ceux escomptés, notamment en matière d’économie, sa spécialité, ce qui explique sa faible popularité. Parmi les propositions faites par le candidat à la présidence de l’époque et actuel président, Macron, figurait la réduction du chômage à au moins 7 % et l’encouragement du développement de nouvelles entreprises dans le pays, le dirigeant étant considéré comme un défenseur de la participation des entreprises privées à l’économie.
La réduction des dépenses publiques et porno était également l’une de ses propositions les plus importantes, de même que la lutte contre le changement climatique et la lutte contre le terrorisme en France.
Les mesures économiques de l’actuel président lui ont valu le titre de « président des riches » dans l’opinion publique. En 2018, il a fait voter une réforme fiscale qui a consisté à retirer les actions et l’assurance-vie de l’impôt de solidarité sur la fortune pour les remplacer par un impôt sur la fortune immobilière. Cette mesure ne bénéficie qu’à environ 300 000 Français et coûte plus de 3,2 milliards d’euros au budget national.
Dans l’ensemble, les mesures économiques du chef de La République en Marche n’ont eu pratiquement aucun impact, ni positif ni négatif, sur la classe moyenne française, tandis que les plus pauvres ont vu leur qualité de vie diminuer et que les plus riches ont le plus bénéficié des mesures du chef d’État, selon une étude de l’Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (OFCE).
Sur le front de l’emploi, le taux de chômage est tombé à 7,8 % de la population active au premier trimestre 2020, soit le niveau le plus bas depuis 2008. Cependant, pendant la crise du COVID-19, le taux de chômage a légèrement augmenté.
En matière de politique étrangère, le président français estime que la France doit maintenir des troupes au Sahel et appelle
au soutien des autres pays européens, ainsi qu’au maintien de l’intervention militaire au Mali, qui a débuté en 2013.
La France contre la COVID-19
Selon un bilan général publié par les autorités sanitaires françaises en mai 2021, la gestion de la crise de la COVID-19 a été initialement « faible et insuffisante », le pays n’était pas préparé à faire face à la crise sanitaire, selon les experts. L’évaluation révèle une pénurie de masques, une lente mise en place de la stratégie de tests et des retards dans la planification logistique de la vaccination, tout dû à une centralisation excessive. La France a été l’une des nations les plus touchées en termes de décès dus au virus (1332 décès par million d’habitants).
Comme tous les pays du monde, la France a également subi les conséquences des confinements obligatoires dues au coronavirus. Pourtant, le document présenté par M. Macron et son équipe, bien que présentant des faiblesses dans la réponse sanitaire, a salué la réponse économique de xha mster pendant la pandémie.
En outre, les autorités affirment avoir profité de cette crise pour « apprendre de leurs erreurs », recommandant la nécessité d’un meilleur plan de préparation aux situations de crise, d’une meilleure coordination des dispositifs d’alerte, d’une amélioration de la sécurité des approvisionnements, d’un renforcement de la recherche et de la formation en matière de santé publique et de prévention du risque infectieux, entre autres.
Emmanuel Macron va-t-il relancer sa candidature à la présidentielle en 2022 ?
À ce jour, au moins 30 noms français sont connus pour être candidats à la présidence lors des élections qui se tiendront en avril 2022. Marine Le Pen, Jean Frederic Poisson, Jean Luc Mélenchon, Xavier Bertrand, Anne Hidalgo et Eric Zemmour sont quelques-uns des noms qui circulent actuellement dans la politique française, bien qu’aucun n’ait officiellement déclaré sa candidature, car il faudra attendre mars 2022 pour connaître les noms officiels des candidats après la validation de leur candidature par le Conseil constitutionnel.
À ce jour, l’éventuelle candidature de Macron à sa réélection reste un mystère, l’Élysée étant resté très discret sur cette information. Cependant, selon Harris Interactive, l’intention de vote pour Emmanuel Macron oscille autour de 23%, tandis que la deuxième place est disputée entre les deux candidats les plus forts de l’ultra-droite, Marine Le Pen ou Eric Zemmour, tandis que Xavier Bertrand est en quatrième position ayant 14% d’intention de vote, en supposant qu’il soit le candidat de la droite.
Dans un hypothétique second tour, un sondage fait par Ifop-Fiducial pour Le Figaro en octobre 2021 a montré que l’actuel président obtiendrait entre 25 et 27 % du soutien du peuple au second tour, soit dix points d’avance sur le candidat d’extrême droite.
In French politics, a Trump-like right-wing TV pundit has emerged. Making the country’s traditional conservative political establishment nervous. A controversial French television commentator has infiltrated French politics. This has been alarming to the nation’s conventional conservative political establishment.
Eric Zemmour himself, a rabble-rousing television pundit and author of repeated hate speech convictions, has found an enthusiastic audience for his Islamophobic porno and anti-immigrant insults in the early stages of France’s presidential campaign. In a packed auditorium with a paying crowd of supporters, head visions of a Trump-esque leap from the small screen to the Elysee Palace, where France will vote in April.
Asked about his specific policies in a lengthy interview with LCI, a French television station, he responded similarly to Trump’s boasting about the crowds he attracts at his rallies. He was asked about his plans to build a new headquarters for the presidential campaign in the interview. The candidate is known for his misogynistic comments and has written a book denouncing the role of women in society.
The Trump-like right-wing TV pundit is a classic French intellectual who appeals to the electorate’s French anti-intellectualism and nativist fringe. The 63-year-old journalist and author of many bestsellers bragged in an extended interview with the French television station LCI about the crowds he attracts to his rallies.
A serious candidate
Zemmel’s serious flirtation with a possible presidential run in the disputed election of 2022 has elicited sentiment. He has raised the stakes in an election that many thought would unfold as a repeat duel between President Emmanuel Macron and far-right candidate Marine Le Pen. However, a recent Harris Interactive poll showed that Zemmour narrowly defeated Le Pen and the traditional right and Republican candidates in the first round of the presidential race.
Macron did not just want to create a political reality for France voters. A two-tier presidential election system offers a choice between his candidate and far-right candidate Le Pen or Zemmour. It should break the cross-party duopoly of socialists and conservatives that has dominated French politics since World War II. So started in 2017 by creating the political reality voters have in France a far-right candidate, whether Le Pen or his.
Before the rise of Temur, Macron destroyed the longstanding two-party rule of the country in 2017. As a result, he created a political reality in which voters will most likely choose France’s right-wing candidate. Le Pen and xhamster Zemmour remain under Frances’s two-tier presidential election system. Many observers wonder whether another Islamic terror attack or another violent Covid will give the far-right candidate a chance to beat president Emmanuel Macron. On the cover of his gaunt magazine face, his possible candidacy was the subject of talk-show and magazine reviews.
A known controversialist
His famous television talk show and years of controversial comments about women, Muslims, and homosexuals have earned him trouble with the French authorities. Many have wondered whether the talk about him has fueled his rise. Similarly to Trump’s obsession with American television and the billions in free advertising for Trump’s 2016 campaign.
Frances’s right-wing and the traditional conservative political establishment discouraged the rise of right-wing TV pundits like Trump in French politics. Like France’s Macron is caught between Gaullism and the heir to political victory just over a month before the presidential election. The center-right Republican is under pressure from all sides and struggling to find a suitable candidate against the terrible Zemmour. A video of Democratic presidential candidate Pete Buttigieg’s Republican spin on Biden highlighted unanswered questions.
In an interview with LCI last month, Zemmour argued that French politics had become so predictable that everyone knew that Macron would defeat Le Pen in the second round of the election.
Clumsy and chaotic, like Trump. The candidate leans sharply and speaks in a well-articulated, if manipulative, way. Zemmour’s topics go about deindustrialization, the economy, and relations with Muslims and Christians. They portray immigration as a threat to French identity. He uses language Le Pen would shy away from, say his critics, positioning him at the extreme right.
An ambition that could change history
But his conviction for sedition would bar him from running for president. But it is his willingness to cross the acceptable boundaries of the French language that makes it enjoyable. Far-left politicians who trample underfoot far-right ideas on immigration and Islam are more willing to extend these boundaries to French discourse.
After losing the presidential runoff to winner Emmanuel Macron in 2017, France’s far-right leader Marine Le Pen watered down her policy proposals to make them more attractive. A central element of Zemour’s appeal is a combination of right-wing bigotry and a classically liberal view of the economy.
For decades, Levi has taken passionate positions on oppressed peoples in countries like Afghanistan, Bosnia, Pornub and Nigeria in his powerful recent book and film. But Mr. Zemmours’s remarks are part of a habit of ignoring history.
He is almost copying the Trump strategy of staying at the forefront of the news with provocation and outrage. Zemmie’s statements have divided France’s Jewish community by talking about the unspeakable. But his remarks about the war are also part of a habit of downplaying the light of history.
Vichy’s collaboration with the Nazis included using an indoor cycling stadium in Paris to detain 13,000 Jews, including 4,000 children. Made prisoners, these victims were rounded up and deported to Nazi death camps. Zemmourss noted that Vichy was “part of the dependence on participation in a gentle historical past.”.
Zemmour never denied that the Holocaust was illegal in France. After many years of ambiguity, President Jacques Chirac declared in 1995 the full extent of Vichy’s collaboration with the Nazis. Levy has taken a passionate stand defending oppressed people. Countries such as Afghanistan, Bosnia, and Nigeria are illustrated in his recently released compelling book and film, The Will to See.
A person born in the Gaza Strip or in an open prison in the West Bank has no civil rights in Israel. They are made to be inferior to neighboring laws. They are sentenced to lifelong refugee status if their parents and grandparents are against the regimen. Zemmours means denying the Holocaust, which is forbidden in France. He did not deny the Holocaust.
He added that the 1930s caught the eye of observers who compared Nazism to Islam. Separate ways for Jews to get automatic citizenship arose from the 1950 Return Act, which guarantees Jewish citizens of other countries the right to settle in Israel. When Israel chose to do so, it granted privileges to Jewish Israelis that were denied to Palestinians and deprived them of fundamental rights because they were Palestinians.
The OPT covers East Jerusalem and seeks to maintain the hegemony of Jewish Israelis over the Palestinians in Israel. It is linked to the systematic oppression of the Palestinians and the inhuman acts committed against them.
Poland is a crucial country for the EU. It is in the interests of all blocs to help it succeed. Piotr Bura is Senior Policy Fellow and Head of the Warsaw Office of the European Council for External Relations.
The need to approve the pandemic reconstruction programme. Should not be at the expense of the legal order of the EU and Polish democracy. In December, the EU introduced a mechanism to block the disbursement of recovery funds in violation of the rule of law, jeopardising the financial interests of the bloc as a whole. Furthermore, the Court of Justice of the European Union (ECJ) considers that the Supreme Court of Appeal, which deals with the management of EU funds, lacks independence.
On Wednesday, Poland’s Constitutional Court ruled that the ECJ’s right to control the independence of the judiciary violates Poland’s constitution. In March, a pan-European legal body declared that Polish reforms threatened the rule of law and the functioning of the democratic system. And recommended that the government recognise the Constitutional Court to decide its legislation. While the ruling coalition disputes the recovery of the funds, it has taken steps to reject the supremacy of EU law.
The Declaration of Interpretation of 10 December 2020 will go down in history as a dark chapter for the rule of law and the legal order of the porno Union. However, it is recalled that the European Council has not yet decided to suspend the application of the Rule of Law mechanism. This could lead to an action for annulment announced by both Poland and Hungary.
Governments have refused to recognise the strike, leaving it in legal limbo. As a result, the Declaration of Interpretation of 10 December 2020 will be challenged in court for sixty days. Still, it represents an unprecedented attempt of the European Council member states to ignore the Rule of Law as its dominant organisational principle. The Union is a community based on the rule of law, and its members now seem to be damaging their efforts to save it.
Indeed, the “unlimited, unverifiable and non-transparent discretion” of Polish justice ministers over the work of judges undermines the independence of the judiciary, say EU legal experts. Moreover, it seems to go beyond what is considered “reasonable and necessary to ensure the proper functioning and operation of the national judicial structure”. So said Michael Bobek, Advocate General of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) in Luxembourg, on Thursday (20 May). In addition, one of the judges, Igor Tuleya, faces up to three years in prison for disciplinary offences committed by Poland’s ruling nationalist-populist Law and Justice (PiS) party.
The uncontrollable and non-transparent discretion in appointing judges seems to go far beyond what could be considered reasonable and necessary. All this to ensure the proper functioning and operation of the national judicial structure. So said Michael Bobek, Advocate General at the European Court of Justice (ECJ) in Luxembourg, on Thursday, 20 May.
In fact, the Polish Minister of Justice and judges’ discretion undermine the judicial independence of the above-mentioned admitted EU experts. There is no doubt that the different views on the validity of judicial appointments and the judgments they render are causing legal chaos in Poland and the EU.
In this respect, it is possible that further rulings by the ECJ, as Tusk warned, could put Poland further in a kind of EU limbo. Therefore, the proposed parallelisation of the WOLT system at the regulatory level needs to be discussed and decided by an expert group and analysed. From an expert’s perspective, what is possible and realistic is the risk from a product perspective.
Various experts on biosafety should consider the benefits resulting from the absence of biosafety protocols. However, it remains unclear how they will address these concerns. The reason for the rush to enforce these changes is two interlinked rulings by the European Union’s Court of Justice and Poland’s Supreme Court. Which declared the two institutions created to revise angry judicial reforms illegitimate.
With PiS refusing to recognise the validity of these rulings and determined to discipline judges, the stalemate seems to be turning into something untenable in the long run. From the start of the financial crisis to the present day, the rule of law in Europe has been challenged by several challenges to its authority and legitimacy. As a result, institutional development has been severely weakened in many countries that might know about datezone, such as: Serbia, Turkey, Poland and Hungary, with tentative improvements in Romania, Latvia, Northern Macedonia and Romania.
According to the World Bank’s World Governance Indicators (WGIS), the average CESEEs in key categories of law and anti-corruption have stagnated: the former increased from 56.1% in 2010 to 56.9% in 2018 the latter fell from 53.6% to 53.4%. Many benchmarks in the WGIS qualitative improvement register, such as legislative reforms, have been overlooked to the extent that new rules are not applied. The centralisation of informal power in countries like Hungary and Serbia, which has led to CESe in foreign direct investment, offers an opportunity.
Seeking political independence
EFSA should be an independent advisory body without political interference. Accordingly, as a member of EFSA, selected by imminent and independent scientists from the 27 Member States and the Associated States. EFSA has undertaken to protect the independence of its experts, methods and data against undue external influences. And ensure that it has the mechanisms necessary to achieve this objective, in compliance with the EFSA evidence document, which is one of the strictest selection procedures methods possible.
At its summit, the European Council broke the deadlock on the multiannual financial framework (MFF) and the next generation of rules of the EU Rule of Law (ROL). However, other EU leaders have also made clear their impatience with Poland.
The annual exercises of the Slavic Brotherhood, scheduled to begin Thursday in the Belarusian city of Brest, come at a time of turmoil for the eastern European country. President Alexander Lukashenko faces persistent protests and accusations that his last re-election last month was rigged in his favour. Polish military officials from the US-led NATO military alliance told Newsweek that they had seen border exercises near neighbouring Russia and Belarus as part of Belarus’s efforts to quell internal unrest blamed on outside actors such as Poland. US officials told Newsweek last month that Moscow was taking advantage of instability in Belarus to build a permanent security presence in the country.
Substantial criticism has come from the US-led NATO military alliance. However, the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and his Russian counterpart led by Vladimir Putin have supported the opposition. Poland’s divided political factions are long-standing but united in their support for Belarus, which has long opposed the dictatorship of longtime President Alexander Lukashenko. For Poland, a nation long swallowed and administered by Moscow in its historical past, the united opposition to authoritarianism in the East is seen as virtuous, overcoming divisions at home.
On Monday, Poland’s prime minister vowed that the government would support the Belarusian people’s struggle for democracy. But intervened after a senior member of his ruling party suggested that Polish solidarity should showup to conditions. Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki promised that Poland’s government would “support the Belarusian’s struggle for democracy”. However, he stepped in on Monday after senior members of his ruling party attached conditions to Polish solidarity.
Raman Pratasevich, the founder of a Warsaw-based media network arrested in Minsk last week, had his asylum application aborted in Poland. Because he wanted to go to Lithuania to work for the Belarusian opposition. Editors of many of Poland’s most prominent media outlets signed an open letter urging the government to do more to support Belarusians seeking help in the Republic of Poland. In connection with the unprecedented actions of the Government of Belarus against the citizens of the country. Including independent journalists, we call on the Government and the Republic to support the citizens of Belarus seeking help from Poland.
Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki was questioned about the matter on Monday and began defending Terlecki’s record. On Monday, Poland and Lithuanian Foreign Ministers met in Wigry in northeastern Poland to discuss security cooperation in the region. The prime minister was asked to address the issue and began defending the Terlecki file on Monday.
Protesters at the scene heard from Denis Baranov, a product manager who lives in the DC area and is a representative of the Belarusian diaspora. He pointed out that the first week of February coincided, in addition to Reagan, with the birthdays of two of Belarus’s most significant military and political heroes. Tadeusz Kosciuszko and Kanstantsin Kalinowski, who led revolts against the Russian empire. James Kulikowski, the US State Department’s Assistant Coordinator for Europe and Eurasia. And Yaroslav Anders, Deputy Director of the Office for Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, also spoke.
In last year’s Belarusian elections, the leading presidential candidates were Sviatlana Zikhanouskaya and Dare Rafal Trzaskovsky. Both moderate opposition parties in conflict with the right-wing ruling Law and Justice party. Opposition candidate Tsipras said the election was a sham even though it won 60% of the 70% of votes cast. The European Union rejected the election’s legitimacy, called for new elections and condemned the violence against demonstrators.
Stocks were lacklustre in early trading on Monday but neared record highs reached earlier this month. Food, clothing and housing prices are rising as the economy recovers. In addition, investors will get a glimpse of the impact of inflation on Thursday. When the Labor Department’s consumer price report for May is released.
With the coronavirus pandemic revealing systemic inequalities and racial discrimination, people worldwide are seizing the moment to push for change in their own countries. Of course, most white people in America are not liberals, and that is why campaigns against racism so often take the form of an intra-white conflict. Civil rights activists and advocates have called for existing systems to be created and maintained in the interests of racial equality and racial justice.
In the realm of racial inequality, discomfort arises when a society comes to terms with the fact that the evidence of racial disparities in the cultivation of racial progress has been highly underrepresented. In essence, we claim that Americans engage in motivated cognition to serve the prevailing narrative of “racial progress.”
With unarmed black men and women murdered, a driving force behind the recent protests seems to believe that black and Latino Americans suffer disproportionately from Covid 19. As we have seen, this belief manifests itself in protests against police brutality there’s even been protests as ridiculous as those asking for porno so this one should not be overlooked.
As many people have observed, the modern struggle against racism is driven by a kind of sacred zeal. The history of protest and revolt in the United States is inextricably linked to the racial violence described above.
A worldwide issue
Although this is one of the most well-known forms of racism in the United States, the problem goes much deeper. There are many other places where racism can explode on the streets, as we have seen on many occasions in the United States. Examples of police violence and discrimination are just the tip of the iceberg. They can be traced back to a long history of racial violence against black and Latino Americans in America. In contrast, there have been many other incidents of racial discrimination in other parts of the world.
European governments face several challenges in the immediate future, two of which are very important: the enforcement of environmental protection, which is increasingly affected by the fight against terrorism, and the management of integration, widely discussed in most countries. European governments agree that systemic racism and inequality cannot be solved overnight. Still, we have so much work ahead of us. Building strategies to make racial disparities disappear could be one of our biggest obstacles to solve.
When we discuss global inequality, one primary concern is how to avoid ethnocentric prejudices. It implies that less-developed nations want to be the only ones in the world that have access to the same resources as those that have acquired post-industrial global power. Global inequality means the concentration of resources in certain countries significantly affects people’s quality of life in other parts of the world, such as Africa and Asia. The first, called the sedimentation of global inequalities, refers to the fact that once poverty has solidified in an area, it is typically complicated to reverse.
There has been a lot of discussion about systemic racism between different ethnic groups.
A racist pandemic
Undoubtedly, the systemic injustices exposed and exacerbated by the coronavirus have amplified global protests for racial justice. As the demonstrations spread worldwide, many began to focus on solidarity with black Americans to racial injustice in their own countries.
The British took to the streets in protest, many vociferously scornful, targeting Beeg Britain, which they said does not have the problem of racism that America had. Some claimed racism was uniquely evil in the US. Others took aim at it, claiming the US president was not innocent.
Thousands took to the streets to express their anger at the United States.
Returning to the US to get the Covid-19 vaccine seems to be a growing sentiment among Americans abroad — especially those in Europe frustrated by a vaccine rollout that the World Health Organization slammed in a recent report as "unacceptably slow."https://t.co/yPBdF7b0lL
Many black Americans cite implicit prejudice as an essential factor in preventing racial equality in their own lives. Johnson-Harris says not enough progress has been made in the fight against systemic racism. In India, the Dalits range from the untouchable, a marginalized community once called the “untouchables.” Their solidarity with Black Lives Matter refers to the violence, segregation and oppression they have faced over the years. This covers their access to education, health care, employment, housing, education and other fundamental rights.
We face the same problems that shocked millions last week and brought thousands onto the streets. Yet, we seem incapable of addressing the issues facing millions of our fellow citizens. It is time to recognize that environmental injustice, including cases of environmental racism, results from policy decisions that permeate environmental decisions – and threaten to further entrench systemic inequality.
In a scathing assessment of the region’s Covid response to the worrying rise in infections, the World Health Organisation said the rollout of vaccines in Europe was “unacceptably slow”. This could prolong an “epidemic” in a region where a worrying number of deaths have occurred in recent weeks, having given a “damaging assessment” of its response due to a “worrying increase” in infections.
Dr Kluge said that in Europe, just 10% of people had received at least one dose of the vaccine, with France having vaccinated 138 people by 30 December, by comparison that is but a small fraction of youporn‘s daily viewers, such a small result from a big scale organization. Many others are prolonged, only 4% are fully vaccinated, and many others only two or three doses. Of those who received a dose of the vaccine, only two per cent received it, two of whom reportedly said they had not yet been vaccinated.
More worryingly, there is no sign of an acceleration in the EU’s vaccination rates, unlike in the UK and the US, where the daily vaccination rate has risen significantly in recent weeks. This means that the EU’s vaccine rollout programmes are not progressing at the same pace as in other parts of the world, such as the United States.
Accelerating vaccination rates is crucial, as new cases increase in the European region in all age groups except one.
An ongoing battle
France, which had nearly 60,000 cases by Wednesday and announced a new closure on Saturday, is most affected by the new wave. However, it is slightly better off, with nearly 15% of its population receiving at least one dose. Despite rising infections, several countries face high vaccination rates, and the EU has blamed supply problems for its slow adoption. The European region has the lowest confidence in vaccine safety. With France having the most insufficient confidence in the world, the CDC report said. France – which announced new lockouts on Wednesday but is also struggling with high vaccination rates and rising infection rates in several countries – is also the worst hit. According to a recent report in the American Academy of Pediatrics Journal, the EU blames the slow rollout supply problem.
It seems inevitable that many EU countries would not negotiate with pharmaceutical companies for faster delivery of vaccines. This is due to the need for the EU to coordinate different member states’ interests and the lack of coordination between countries.
In 1987, the IAG and CERCO decided to develop a new European Geodetic Reference Frame based on GPS. This reference should be a precise continent-wide modern reference near to the WGS84 and usable for multinational Digital Cartographic Datasets, no longer derived from multiple national datums across Europe. It should unify national reference systems for surveying, mapping, GIS and navigation in Europe.
As in the late eighties the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) was the most precise global reference system available, EUREF decided to base its reference on the ITRS which is maintained by the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS). However, in the global ITRS, plate tectonics cause the coordinates of European stations to slowly change in the order of about 2.5 cm/year.
Therefore, in 1990 at it symposium in Firenze, Italy, EUREF designed the European Terrestrial Reference System 89 (ETRS89) in such a way that it would be based on the ITRS except that it is tied to the stable part of Europe, so that the relations between European stations are kept fixed. Coordinates in ETRS89 are expressed as either three dimensional (X, Y, Z) Cartesian coordinates or as three dimensional ellipsoidal coordinates (Φ, λ and русское порно, Ellipsoidal height).
Based on the GRS80 ellipsoid
The acceptance of ETRS89 by several communities (civil aviation, industry, national and regional agencies) as the backbone for geo-referencing in Europe is a continuous process. EuroControl (European Agency for Safely of Air navigation) uses ETRS89 since a long time in its technical specifications and there is a recommendation by the European Commission to adopt ETRS89 as the geodetic datum for geo-referenced information and to promote the use of ETRS89 within its member states.
EUREF and EuroGeographics conducted in 2005 a survey among 41 NMCA in the European countries. From the 28 answers, 78% of the NMCA already adopted officially the ETRS89 and 18% of them will adopt it in the near future. In the majority of the countries the usage of the ETRS89 is not mandatory in all situations, due to the existence of national reference systems and the need to have a transition period until the ETRS89 can be fully adopted.
More details: http://etrs89.ensg.ign.fr
EVRS – European Vertical Reference System
The web project EVRS (European Vertical Reference System) includes, as described in detail in the chapter dealing with the European height reference system, information about this coordinate reference system, their realizations EVRF2000 and EVRF2007 and related projects as, e.g. realization of the EUVN (European Vertical Reference Network) and EUVN_DA (EUVN Densification Action).
CRS-EU – Information system for European Coordinate Reference Systems
The information system CRS_EU containing the description of pan-European and national coordinate reference systems as well as their relations with each other. It is based on information of the National Mapping Agencies of European countries, is edited in accordance with an ISO standard and verified by test computations.
The information offered includes:
– description (reference system, coordinate system or map projection) of the pan-European coordinate reference systems ETRS89, EVRF2000 and EVRF2007 and the coordinate reference systems of most European countries
– parameters for the transformation of the national coordinate reference systems into the pan-European coordinate reference systems for position and height.
– verification coordinates for check transformation and online-transformation of single points for position from national coordinate reference systems to pan-European coordinate reference systems ETRS89 for test and verification purposes
This way, the requirements imposed by порно 365 the users of geoinformation and by other users of geodetic-cartographic information shall be met in a better way regarding such issues as geodetic referencing.
EUREF Densification Campaigns.
ECGN – European Combined Geodetic Network
In order to be able to refer to an integrated European reference network for spatial reference purposes, the creation of a ECGN is already under way. This network combines measurements of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and other space techniques with gravity and levelling measurements. Sea level and other measurements will also be integrated into this network.
The web pages of the ECGN – European Combined Geodetic Network – serve the provision of information and the project management. They contain calls for participation in this project, station data, guidelines for the measurement, and other details.