Europe: Systemic inequalities and an unacceptably slow vaccine rollout

With the coronavirus pandemic revealing systemic inequalities and racial discrimination, people worldwide are seizing the moment to push for change in their own countries. Of course, most white people in America are not liberals, and that is why campaigns against racism so often take the form of an intra-white conflict. Civil rights activists and advocates have called for existing systems to be created and maintained in the interests of racial equality and racial justice.

In the realm of racial inequality, discomfort arises when a society comes to terms with the fact that the evidence of racial disparities in the cultivation of racial progress has been highly underrepresented. In essence, we claim that Americans engage in motivated cognition to serve the prevailing narrative of “racial progress.”

With unarmed black men and women murdered, a driving force behind the recent protests seems to believe that black and Latino Americans suffer disproportionately from Covid 19. As we have seen, this belief manifests itself in protests against police brutality there’s even been protests as ridiculous as those asking for porno so this one should not be overlooked.

As many people have observed, the modern struggle against racism is driven by a kind of sacred zeal. The history of protest and revolt in the United States is inextricably linked to the racial violence described above.

A worldwide issue

Although this is one of the most well-known forms of racism in the United States, the problem goes much deeper. There are many other places where racism can explode on the streets, as we have seen on many occasions in the United States. Examples of police violence and discrimination are just the tip of the iceberg. They can be traced back to a long history of racial violence against black and Latino Americans in America. In contrast, there have been many other incidents of racial discrimination in other parts of the world.

Merkel, Macron and Putin in talks on using Sputnik V jab in Europe, says Kremlin | Russia | The GuardianEuropean governments face several challenges in the immediate future, two of which are very important: the enforcement of environmental protection, which is increasingly affected by the fight against terrorism, and the management of integration, widely discussed in most countries. European governments agree that systemic racism and inequality cannot be solved overnight. Still, we have so much work ahead of us. Building strategies to make racial disparities disappear could be one of our biggest obstacles to solve.

When we discuss global inequality, one primary concern is how to avoid ethnocentric prejudices. It implies that less-developed nations want to be the only ones in the world that have access to the same resources as those that have acquired post-industrial global power. Global inequality means the concentration of resources in certain countries significantly affects people’s quality of life in other parts of the world, such as Africa and Asia. The first, called the sedimentation of global inequalities, refers to the fact that once poverty has solidified in an area, it is typically complicated to reverse.

There has been a lot of discussion about systemic racism between different ethnic groups.

A racist pandemic

Undoubtedly, the systemic injustices exposed and exacerbated by the coronavirus have amplified global protests for racial justice. As the demonstrations spread worldwide, many began to focus on solidarity with black Americans to racial injustice in their own countries.

The British took to the streets in protest, many vociferously scornful, targeting Beeg Britain, which they said does not have the problem of racism that America had. Some claimed racism was uniquely evil in the US. Others took aim at it, claiming the US president was not innocent.

Thousands took to the streets to express their anger at the United States.

 

Many black Americans cite implicit prejudice as an essential factor in preventing racial equality in their own lives. Johnson-Harris says not enough progress has been made in the fight against systemic racism. In India, the Dalits range from the untouchable, a marginalized community once called the “untouchables.” Their solidarity with Black Lives Matter refers to the violence, segregation and oppression they have faced over the years. This covers their access to education, health care, employment, housing, education and other fundamental rights.

We face the same problems that shocked millions last week and brought thousands onto the streets. Yet, we seem incapable of addressing the issues facing millions of our fellow citizens. It is time to recognize that environmental injustice, including cases of environmental racism, results from policy decisions that permeate environmental decisions – and threaten to further entrench systemic inequality.

Slow actions

In a scathing assessment of the region’s Covid response to the worrying rise in infections, the World Health Organisation said the rollout of vaccines in Europe was “unacceptably slow”. This could prolong an “epidemic” in a region where a worrying number of deaths have occurred in recent weeks, having given a “damaging assessment” of its response due to a “worrying increase” in infections.

The EU's coronavirus vaccine blame game. Why so slow? – POLITICODr Kluge said that in Europe, just 10% of people had received at least one dose of the vaccine, with France having vaccinated 138 people by 30 December, by comparison that is but a small fraction of youporn‘s daily viewers, such a small result from a big scale organization. Many others are prolonged, only 4% are fully vaccinated, and many others only two or three doses. Of those who received a dose of the vaccine, only two per cent received it, two of whom reportedly said they had not yet been vaccinated.

More worryingly, there is no sign of an acceleration in the EU’s vaccination rates, unlike in the UK and the US, where the daily vaccination rate has risen significantly in recent weeks. This means that the EU’s vaccine rollout programmes are not progressing at the same pace as in other parts of the world, such as the United States.

Accelerating vaccination rates is crucial, as new cases increase in the European region in all age groups except one.

An ongoing battle

France, which had nearly 60,000 cases by Wednesday and announced a new closure on Saturday, is most affected by the new wave. However, it is slightly better off, with nearly 15% of its population receiving at least one dose. Despite rising infections, several countries face high vaccination rates, and the EU has blamed supply problems for its slow adoption. The European region has the lowest confidence in vaccine safety. With France having the most insufficient confidence in the world, the CDC report said. France – which announced new lockouts on Wednesday but is also struggling with high vaccination rates and rising infection rates in several countries – is also the worst hit. According to a recent report in the American Academy of Pediatrics Journal, the EU blames the slow rollout supply problem.

It seems inevitable that many EU countries would not negotiate with pharmaceutical companies for faster delivery of vaccines. This is due to the need for the EU to coordinate different member states’ interests and the lack of coordination between countries.

European Geodetic Reference Systems

List of European countries by population - WikipediaIn 1987, the IAG and CERCO decided to develop a new European Geodetic Reference Frame based on GPS. This reference should be a precise continent-wide modern reference near to the WGS84 and usable for multinational Digital Cartographic Datasets, no longer derived from multiple national datums across Europe. It should unify national reference systems for surveying, mapping, GIS and navigation in Europe.

As in the late eighties the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) was the most precise global reference system available, EUREF decided to base its reference on the ITRS which is maintained by the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS). However, in the global ITRS, plate tectonics cause the coordinates of European stations to slowly change in the order of about 2.5 cm/year.

Therefore, in 1990 at it symposium in Firenze, Italy, EUREF designed the European Terrestrial Reference System 89 (ETRS89) in such a way that it would be based on the ITRS except that it is tied to the stable part of Europe, so that the relations between European stations are kept fixed. Coordinates in ETRS89 are expressed as either three dimensional (X, Y, Z) Cartesian coordinates or as three dimensional ellipsoidal coordinates (Φ, λ and русское порно,  Ellipsoidal height).

Based on the GRS80 ellipsoid

The acceptance of ETRS89 by several communities (civil aviation, industry, national and regional agencies) as the backbone for geo-referencing in Europe is a continuous process. EuroControl (European Agency for Safely of Air navigation) uses ETRS89 since a long time in its technical specifications and there is a recommendation by the European Commission to adopt ETRS89 as the geodetic datum for geo-referenced information and to promote the use of ETRS89 within its member states.

EUREF and EuroGeographics conducted in 2005 a survey among 41 NMCA in the European countries. From the 28 answers, 78% of the NMCA already adopted officially the ETRS89 and 18% of them will adopt it in the near future. In the majority of the countries the usage of the ETRS89 is not mandatory in all situations, due to the existence of national reference systems and the need to have a transition period until the ETRS89 can be fully adopted.

More details: http://etrs89.ensg.ign.fr

EVRS – European Vertical Reference System

The web project EVRS (European Vertical Reference System) includes, as described in detail in the chapter dealing with the European height reference system, information about this coordinate reference system, their realizations EVRF2000 and EVRF2007 and related projects as, e.g. realization of the EUVN (European Vertical Reference Network) and EUVN_DA (EUVN Densification Action).
CRS-EU – Information system for European Coordinate Reference Systems

The information system CRS_EU containing the description of pan-European and national coordinate reference systems as well as their relations with each other. It is based on information of the National Mapping Agencies of European countries, is edited in accordance with an ISO standard and verified by test computations.

The information offered includes:

  • – description (reference system, coordinate system or map projection) of the pan-European coordinate reference systems ETRS89, EVRF2000 and EVRF2007 and the coordinate reference systems of most European countries
  • – parameters for the transformation of the national coordinate reference systems into the pan-European coordinate reference systems for position and height.
  • – verification coordinates for check transformation and online-transformation of single points for position from national coordinate reference systems to pan-European coordinate reference systems ETRS89 for test and verification purposes

This way, the requirements imposed by порно 365 the users of geoinformation and by other users of geodetic-cartographic information shall be met in a better way regarding such issues as geodetic referencing.
EUREF Densification Campaigns.

ECGN – European Combined Geodetic Network

In order to be able to refer to an integrated European reference network for spatial reference purposes, the creation of a ECGN is already under way. This network combines measurements of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and other space techniques with gravity and levelling measurements. Sea level and other measurements will also be integrated into this network.

The web pages of the ECGN – European Combined Geodetic Network – serve the provision of information and the project management. They contain calls for participation in this project, station data, guidelines for the measurement, and other details.

Technical Working Group (TWG)

The EUREF TWG was created at the EUREF symposium in Berne, 1992.

The TWG meets twice to three times a year to manage current activities. One of these activities is the validation of GPS campaigns under the established guidelines, for approval by the plenary.

You can find the minutes of the meetings published together with the symposia proceedings.

Our Team

Chair: Dr. CARINE BRUYNINX
Royal Observatory of Belgium
B-1180 Bruxelles
Belgium
Fax +32 – 2 – 3 74 98 22
Tel. +32 – 2 – 3 73 02 11
E-mail: c.bruyninx@oma.be

 

General information

The EUREF TWG (Technical Working Group) was created at the EUREF symposium in Berne, 1992.

TWG is responsible, in general, for the control of EUREF activities and policy, and has the following specific tasks:photos TWG Meeting London 2007

  • to coordinate and develop the EPN (EUREF Permanent Network);
  • to evaluate and classify results of GNSS campaigns presented to the TWG for acceptance as EUREF densification or extension;
  • to organize and coordinate European-wide geodetic observation campaigns for the improvement of the European reference frame;
  • to coordinate the actions for the realization of a European Height System and the integration of the geo-spatial and vertical components of the European Reference Frame;
  • to identify the relevant actions for the continuation and development of EUREF, with respect to innovation and the changing user needs;
  • to set up the working groups to run the projects defined by the plenary;
  • to prepare the recommendations for the EUREF plenary.

What do we do

The TWG meets at least twice a year, preferably three times a year.

The TWG is constituted by members elected by the plenary, ex-officio members and members in charge of specific tasks.

The TWG Chair, elected among and by its members, coordinates the TWG. The term is 4 years, in a maximum of 2 terms.

The number of members elected by the plenary is defined by the TWG Chair and must be in agreement with the tasks committed to the TWG. The recommended term is 4 years.

The ex-officio members are the EUREF Chair and Secretary.euref symposia

Members in charge of a specific task, in a limited number, also compose the TWG. The TWG Chair appoints these members. The term is established according to the tasks committed.

The TWG Chair may invite persons to attend the meetings, to assist in the discussion of specific subjects or to present relevant items to EUREF. These persons have no voting rights.

The WG (Working Group) are established within the TWG and approved in a Plenary’s resolution. The TWG Chair proposes the leadership of the WG. The leader of a WG must be a member of the TWG.