Poland’s government adds tension to its political status.

Poland is a crucial country for the EU. It is in the interests of all blocs to help it succeed. Piotr Bura is Senior Policy Fellow and Head of the Warsaw Office of the European Council for External Relations.

The need to approve the pandemic reconstruction programme. Should not be at the expense of the legal order of the EU and Polish democracy. In December, the EU introduced a mechanism to block the disbursement of recovery funds in violation of the rule of law, jeopardising the financial interests of the bloc as a whole. Furthermore, the Court of Justice of the European Union (ECJ) considers that the Supreme Court of Appeal, which deals with the management of EU funds, lacks independence.

On Wednesday, Poland’s Constitutional Court ruled that the ECJ’s right to control the independence of the judiciary violates Poland’s constitution. In March, a pan-European legal body declared that Polish reforms threatened the rule of law and the functioning of the democratic system. And recommended that the government recognise the Constitutional Court to decide its legislation. While the ruling coalition disputes the recovery of the funds, it has taken steps to reject the supremacy of EU law.

The Declaration of Interpretation of 10 December 2020 will go down in history as a dark chapter for the rule of law and the legal order of the porno Union. However, it is recalled that the European Council has not yet decided to suspend the application of the Rule of Law mechanism. This could lead to an action for annulment announced by both Poland and Hungary.

Poland pushes controversial court reforms despite EU ruling | News | DW | 19.11.2019

Legal limbo

Governments have refused to recognise the strike, leaving it in legal limbo. As a result, the Declaration of Interpretation of 10 December 2020 will be challenged in court for sixty days. Still, it represents an unprecedented attempt of the European Council member states to ignore the Rule of Law as its dominant organisational principle. The Union is a community based on the rule of law, and its members now seem to be damaging their efforts to save it.

Indeed, the “unlimited, unverifiable and non-transparent discretion” of Polish justice ministers over the work of judges undermines the independence of the judiciary, say EU legal experts. Moreover, it seems to go beyond what is considered “reasonable and necessary to ensure the proper functioning and operation of the national judicial structure”. So said Michael Bobek, Advocate General of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) in Luxembourg, on Thursday (20 May). In addition, one of the judges, Igor Tuleya, faces up to three years in prison for disciplinary offences committed by Poland’s ruling nationalist-populist Law and Justice (PiS) party.

The uncontrollable and non-transparent discretion in appointing judges seems to go far beyond what could be considered reasonable and necessary. All this to ensure the proper functioning and operation of the national judicial structure. So said Michael Bobek, Advocate General at the European Court of Justice (ECJ) in Luxembourg, on Thursday, 20 May.

In fact, the Polish Minister of Justice and judges’ discretion undermine the judicial independence of the above-mentioned admitted EU experts. There is no doubt that the different views on the validity of judicial appointments and the judgments they render are causing legal chaos in Poland and the EU.

Uncertainty prolongs

In this respect, it is possible that further rulings by the ECJ, as Tusk warned, could put Poland further in a kind of EU limbo. Therefore, the proposed parallelisation of the WOLT system at the regulatory level needs to be discussed and decided by an expert group and analysed. From an expert’s perspective, what is possible and realistic is the risk from a product perspective.

Various experts on biosafety should consider the benefits resulting from the absence of biosafety protocols. However, it remains unclear how they will address these concerns. The reason for the rush to enforce these changes is two interlinked rulings by the European Union’s Court of Justice and Poland’s Supreme Court. Which declared the two institutions created to revise angry judicial reforms illegitimate.

With PiS refusing to recognise the validity of these rulings and determined to discipline judges, the stalemate seems to be turning into something untenable in the long run. From the start of the financial crisis to the present day, the rule of law in Europe has been challenged by several challenges to its authority and legitimacy. As a result, institutional development has been severely weakened in many countries that might know about datezone, such as: Serbia, Turkey, Poland and Hungary, with tentative improvements in Romania, Latvia, Northern Macedonia and Romania.

According to the World Bank’s World Governance Indicators (WGIS), the average CESEEs in key categories of law and anti-corruption have stagnated: the former increased from 56.1% in 2010 to 56.9% in 2018 the latter fell from 53.6% to 53.4%. Many benchmarks in the WGIS qualitative improvement register, such as legislative reforms, have been overlooked to the extent that new rules are not applied. The centralisation of informal power in countries like Hungary and Serbia, which has led to CESe in foreign direct investment, offers an opportunity.

Repression and resistance in Belarus: A monthly chronology - IFEX

Seeking political independence

EFSA should be an independent advisory body without political interference. Accordingly, as a member of EFSA, selected by imminent and independent scientists from the 27 Member States and the Associated States. EFSA has undertaken to protect the independence of its experts, methods and data against undue external influences. And ensure that it has the mechanisms necessary to achieve this objective, in compliance with the EFSA evidence document, which is one of the strictest selection procedures methods possible.

At its summit, the European Council broke the deadlock on the multiannual financial framework (MFF) and the next generation of rules of the EU Rule of Law (ROL). However, other EU leaders have also made clear their impatience with Poland.

The annual exercises of the Slavic Brotherhood, scheduled to begin Thursday in the Belarusian city of Brest, come at a time of turmoil for the eastern European country. President Alexander Lukashenko faces persistent protests and accusations that his last re-election last month was rigged in his favour. Polish military officials from the US-led NATO military alliance told Newsweek that they had seen border exercises near neighbouring Russia and Belarus as part of Belarus’s efforts to quell internal unrest blamed on outside actors such as Poland. US officials told Newsweek last month that Moscow was taking advantage of instability in Belarus to build a permanent security presence in the country.

Substantial criticism has come from the US-led NATO military alliance. However, the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and his Russian counterpart led by Vladimir Putin have supported the opposition. Poland’s divided political factions are long-standing but united in their support for Belarus, which has long opposed the dictatorship of longtime President Alexander Lukashenko. For Poland, a nation long swallowed and administered by Moscow in its historical past, the united opposition to authoritarianism in the East is seen as virtuous, overcoming divisions at home.

Supporting Belarus

On Monday, Poland’s prime minister vowed that the government would support the Belarusian people’s struggle for democracy. But intervened after a senior member of his ruling party suggested that Polish solidarity should showup to conditions. Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki promised that Poland’s government would “support the Belarusian’s struggle for democracy”. However, he stepped in on Monday after senior members of his ruling party attached conditions to Polish solidarity. Polish PM vows support for Belarus' opposition after ally's controversial remarks | Euronews

Raman Pratasevich, the founder of a Warsaw-based media network arrested in Minsk last week, had his asylum application aborted in Poland. Because he wanted to go to Lithuania to work for the Belarusian opposition. Editors of many of Poland’s most prominent media outlets signed an open letter urging the government to do more to support Belarusians seeking help in the Republic of Poland. In connection with the unprecedented actions of the Government of Belarus against the citizens of the country. Including independent journalists, we call on the Government and the Republic to support the citizens of Belarus seeking help from Poland.

Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki was questioned about the matter on Monday and began defending Terlecki’s record. On Monday, Poland and Lithuanian Foreign Ministers met in Wigry in northeastern Poland to discuss security cooperation in the region. The prime minister was asked to address the issue and began defending the Terlecki file on Monday.

 

Longstanding revolt

Protesters at the scene heard from Denis Baranov, a product manager who lives in the DC area and is a representative of the Belarusian diaspora. He pointed out that the first week of February coincided, in addition to Reagan, with the birthdays of two of Belarus’s most significant military and political heroes. Tadeusz Kosciuszko and Kanstantsin Kalinowski, who led revolts against the Russian empire. James Kulikowski, the US State Department’s Assistant Coordinator for Europe and Eurasia. And Yaroslav Anders, Deputy Director of the Office for Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, also spoke.

In last year’s Belarusian elections, the leading presidential candidates were Sviatlana Zikhanouskaya and Dare Rafal Trzaskovsky. Both moderate opposition parties in conflict with the right-wing ruling Law and Justice party. Opposition candidate Tsipras said the election was a sham even though it won 60% of the 70% of votes cast. The European Union rejected the election’s legitimacy, called for new elections and condemned the violence against demonstrators.

Stocks were lacklustre in early trading on Monday but neared record highs reached earlier this month. Food, clothing and housing prices are rising as the economy recovers. In addition, investors will get a glimpse of the impact of inflation on Thursday. When the Labor Department’s consumer price report for May is released.

Europe: Systemic inequalities and an unacceptably slow vaccine rollout

With the coronavirus pandemic revealing systemic inequalities and racial discrimination, people worldwide are seizing the moment to push for change in their own countries. Of course, most white people in America are not liberals, and that is why campaigns against racism so often take the form of an intra-white conflict. Civil rights activists and advocates have called for existing systems to be created and maintained in the interests of racial equality and racial justice.

In the realm of racial inequality, discomfort arises when a society comes to terms with the fact that the evidence of racial disparities in the cultivation of racial progress has been highly underrepresented. In essence, we claim that Americans engage in motivated cognition to serve the prevailing narrative of “racial progress.”

With unarmed black men and women murdered, a driving force behind the recent protests seems to believe that black and Latino Americans suffer disproportionately from Covid 19. As we have seen, this belief manifests itself in protests against police brutality there’s even been protests as ridiculous as those asking for porno so this one should not be overlooked.

As many people have observed, the modern struggle against racism is driven by a kind of sacred zeal. The history of protest and revolt in the United States is inextricably linked to the racial violence described above.

A worldwide issue

Although this is one of the most well-known forms of racism in the United States, the problem goes much deeper. There are many other places where racism can explode on the streets, as we have seen on many occasions in the United States. Examples of police violence and discrimination are just the tip of the iceberg. They can be traced back to a long history of racial violence against black and Latino Americans in America. In contrast, there have been many other incidents of racial discrimination in other parts of the world.

Merkel, Macron and Putin in talks on using Sputnik V jab in Europe, says Kremlin | Russia | The GuardianEuropean governments face several challenges in the immediate future, two of which are very important: the enforcement of environmental protection, which is increasingly affected by the fight against terrorism, and the management of integration, widely discussed in most countries. European governments agree that systemic racism and inequality cannot be solved overnight. Still, we have so much work ahead of us. Building strategies to make racial disparities disappear could be one of our biggest obstacles to solve.

When we discuss global inequality, one primary concern is how to avoid ethnocentric prejudices. It implies that less-developed nations want to be the only ones in the world that have access to the same resources as those that have acquired post-industrial global power. Global inequality means the concentration of resources in certain countries significantly affects people’s quality of life in other parts of the world, such as Africa and Asia. The first, called the sedimentation of global inequalities, refers to the fact that once poverty has solidified in an area, it is typically complicated to reverse.

There has been a lot of discussion about systemic racism between different ethnic groups.

A racist pandemic

Undoubtedly, the systemic injustices exposed and exacerbated by the coronavirus have amplified global protests for racial justice. As the demonstrations spread worldwide, many began to focus on solidarity with black Americans to racial injustice in their own countries.

The British took to the streets in protest, many vociferously scornful, targeting Beeg Britain, which they said does not have the problem of racism that America had. Some claimed racism was uniquely evil in the US. Others took aim at it, claiming the US president was not innocent.

Thousands took to the streets to express their anger at the United States.

 

Many black Americans cite implicit prejudice as an essential factor in preventing racial equality in their own lives. Johnson-Harris says not enough progress has been made in the fight against systemic racism. In India, the Dalits range from the untouchable, a marginalized community once called the “untouchables.” Their solidarity with Black Lives Matter refers to the violence, segregation and oppression they have faced over the years. This covers their access to education, health care, employment, housing, education and other fundamental rights.

We face the same problems that shocked millions last week and brought thousands onto the streets. Yet, we seem incapable of addressing the issues facing millions of our fellow citizens. It is time to recognize that environmental injustice, including cases of environmental racism, results from policy decisions that permeate environmental decisions – and threaten to further entrench systemic inequality.

Slow actions

In a scathing assessment of the region’s Covid response to the worrying rise in infections, the World Health Organisation said the rollout of vaccines in Europe was “unacceptably slow”. This could prolong an “epidemic” in a region where a worrying number of deaths have occurred in recent weeks, having given a “damaging assessment” of its response due to a “worrying increase” in infections.

The EU's coronavirus vaccine blame game. Why so slow? – POLITICODr Kluge said that in Europe, just 10% of people had received at least one dose of the vaccine, with France having vaccinated 138 people by 30 December, by comparison that is but a small fraction of youporn‘s daily viewers, such a small result from a big scale organization. Many others are prolonged, only 4% are fully vaccinated, and many others only two or three doses. Of those who received a dose of the vaccine, only two per cent received it, two of whom reportedly said they had not yet been vaccinated.

More worryingly, there is no sign of an acceleration in the EU’s vaccination rates, unlike in the UK and the US, where the daily vaccination rate has risen significantly in recent weeks. This means that the EU’s vaccine rollout programmes are not progressing at the same pace as in other parts of the world, such as the United States.

Accelerating vaccination rates is crucial, as new cases increase in the European region in all age groups except one.

An ongoing battle

France, which had nearly 60,000 cases by Wednesday and announced a new closure on Saturday, is most affected by the new wave. However, it is slightly better off, with nearly 15% of its population receiving at least one dose. Despite rising infections, several countries face high vaccination rates, and the EU has blamed supply problems for its slow adoption. The European region has the lowest confidence in vaccine safety. With France having the most insufficient confidence in the world, the CDC report said. France – which announced new lockouts on Wednesday but is also struggling with high vaccination rates and rising infection rates in several countries – is also the worst hit. According to a recent report in the American Academy of Pediatrics Journal, the EU blames the slow rollout supply problem.

It seems inevitable that many EU countries would not negotiate with pharmaceutical companies for faster delivery of vaccines. This is due to the need for the EU to coordinate different member states’ interests and the lack of coordination between countries.

European Geodetic Reference Systems

List of European countries by population - WikipediaIn 1987, the IAG and CERCO decided to develop a new European Geodetic Reference Frame based on GPS. This reference should be a precise continent-wide modern reference near to the WGS84 and usable for multinational Digital Cartographic Datasets, no longer derived from multiple national datums across Europe. It should unify national reference systems for surveying, mapping, GIS and navigation in Europe.

As in the late eighties the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) was the most precise global reference system available, EUREF decided to base its reference on the ITRS which is maintained by the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS). However, in the global ITRS, plate tectonics cause the coordinates of European stations to slowly change in the order of about 2.5 cm/year.

Therefore, in 1990 at it symposium in Firenze, Italy, EUREF designed the European Terrestrial Reference System 89 (ETRS89) in such a way that it would be based on the ITRS except that it is tied to the stable part of Europe, so that the relations between European stations are kept fixed. Coordinates in ETRS89 are expressed as either three dimensional (X, Y, Z) Cartesian coordinates or as three dimensional ellipsoidal coordinates (Φ, λ and русское порно,  Ellipsoidal height).

Based on the GRS80 ellipsoid

The acceptance of ETRS89 by several communities (civil aviation, industry, national and regional agencies) as the backbone for geo-referencing in Europe is a continuous process. EuroControl (European Agency for Safely of Air navigation) uses ETRS89 since a long time in its technical specifications and there is a recommendation by the European Commission to adopt ETRS89 as the geodetic datum for geo-referenced information and to promote the use of ETRS89 within its member states.

EUREF and EuroGeographics conducted in 2005 a survey among 41 NMCA in the European countries. From the 28 answers, 78% of the NMCA already adopted officially the ETRS89 and 18% of them will adopt it in the near future. In the majority of the countries the usage of the ETRS89 is not mandatory in all situations, due to the existence of national reference systems and the need to have a transition period until the ETRS89 can be fully adopted.

More details: http://etrs89.ensg.ign.fr

EVRS – European Vertical Reference System

The web project EVRS (European Vertical Reference System) includes, as described in detail in the chapter dealing with the European height reference system, information about this coordinate reference system, their realizations EVRF2000 and EVRF2007 and related projects as, e.g. realization of the EUVN (European Vertical Reference Network) and EUVN_DA (EUVN Densification Action).
CRS-EU – Information system for European Coordinate Reference Systems

The information system CRS_EU containing the description of pan-European and national coordinate reference systems as well as their relations with each other. It is based on information of the National Mapping Agencies of European countries, is edited in accordance with an ISO standard and verified by test computations.

The information offered includes:

  • – description (reference system, coordinate system or map projection) of the pan-European coordinate reference systems ETRS89, EVRF2000 and EVRF2007 and the coordinate reference systems of most European countries
  • – parameters for the transformation of the national coordinate reference systems into the pan-European coordinate reference systems for position and height.
  • – verification coordinates for check transformation and online-transformation of single points for position from national coordinate reference systems to pan-European coordinate reference systems ETRS89 for test and verification purposes

This way, the requirements imposed by порно 365 the users of geoinformation and by other users of geodetic-cartographic information shall be met in a better way regarding such issues as geodetic referencing.
EUREF Densification Campaigns.

ECGN – European Combined Geodetic Network

In order to be able to refer to an integrated European reference network for spatial reference purposes, the creation of a ECGN is already under way. This network combines measurements of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and other space techniques with gravity and levelling measurements. Sea level and other measurements will also be integrated into this network.

The web pages of the ECGN – European Combined Geodetic Network – serve the provision of information and the project management. They contain calls for participation in this project, station data, guidelines for the measurement, and other details.

Technical Working Group (TWG)

The EUREF TWG was created at the EUREF symposium in Berne, 1992.

The TWG meets twice to three times a year to manage current activities. One of these activities is the validation of GPS campaigns under the established guidelines, for approval by the plenary.

You can find the minutes of the meetings published together with the symposia proceedings.

Our Team

Chair: Dr. CARINE BRUYNINX
Royal Observatory of Belgium
B-1180 Bruxelles
Belgium
Fax +32 – 2 – 3 74 98 22
Tel. +32 – 2 – 3 73 02 11
E-mail: c.bruyninx@oma.be

 

General information

The EUREF TWG (Technical Working Group) was created at the EUREF symposium in Berne, 1992.

TWG is responsible, in general, for the control of EUREF activities and policy, and has the following specific tasks:photos TWG Meeting London 2007

  • to coordinate and develop the EPN (EUREF Permanent Network);
  • to evaluate and classify results of GNSS campaigns presented to the TWG for acceptance as EUREF densification or extension;
  • to organize and coordinate European-wide geodetic observation campaigns for the improvement of the European reference frame;
  • to coordinate the actions for the realization of a European Height System and the integration of the geo-spatial and vertical components of the European Reference Frame;
  • to identify the relevant actions for the continuation and development of EUREF, with respect to innovation and the changing user needs;
  • to set up the working groups to run the projects defined by the plenary;
  • to prepare the recommendations for the EUREF plenary.

What do we do

The TWG meets at least twice a year, preferably three times a year.

The TWG is constituted by members elected by the plenary, ex-officio members and members in charge of specific tasks.

The TWG Chair, elected among and by its members, coordinates the TWG. The term is 4 years, in a maximum of 2 terms.

The number of members elected by the plenary is defined by the TWG Chair and must be in agreement with the tasks committed to the TWG. The recommended term is 4 years.

The ex-officio members are the EUREF Chair and Secretary.euref symposia

Members in charge of a specific task, in a limited number, also compose the TWG. The TWG Chair appoints these members. The term is established according to the tasks committed.

The TWG Chair may invite persons to attend the meetings, to assist in the discussion of specific subjects or to present relevant items to EUREF. These persons have no voting rights.

The WG (Working Group) are established within the TWG and approved in a Plenary’s resolution. The TWG Chair proposes the leadership of the WG. The leader of a WG must be a member of the TWG.